Sushi Items - Sake

What is Sake, Also Called Japanese Rice Wine?

sake rice wine Sake (sah-keh) is a fermented alcoholic beverage with a long history in Japanese culture. While often called “rice wine” in the West, sake is te4chnically more like beer than wine as it is made from a grain, rice, not a fruit as wine is. Sake is a fermented, but not a distilled beverage, and should not be confused with shochu (or Shōchū), another Japanese alcoholic drink that is distilled to become a spirit, with a much higher alcohol content.

The alcoholic content of sake is higher than beer, generally between 12% and 18% alcohol by volume (instead of the typical 4% – 5% of beer), and has a complex, even fruity flavor when made by a high quality manufacturer. Sake characteristics vary from sweet to dry, fruity to earthy, with acidity and fragrance complexities that can rival western wines. Sake is certainly far from a simple drink.

Milling The Rice – Crafting The Rice Wine

Sake takes approximately one month to make and is consumed after aging about six months to smooth out its flavor. It will not improve with longer aging as do some traditional western wines. The rice used in the production is polished, or ‘milled,’ which removes much of the outer coating. In fact, in some premium sake, as much as 65% of the grain is milled away, leaving only a small amount of the grain to be used in production.

The degree of milling greatly influences the quality of the final product, and there are five designations for sake, depending on the degree of milling and the additives in the final product.

  • Junmai-shu: This is a ‘pure’ sake with no distilled alcohol added as a finishing ingredient. Traditionally, 30% of the grain was ground away for this designation, however more recently the laws have changed and there are no longer any milling requirements. The only requirement is that no alcohol may be added to the product for this designation.
  • Honjozo-shu: This style has had at least 30% of the grain milled away and a some additional alcohol is added during finishing.
  • Ginjo-shu: This style has 40% of the grain milled away and may or may not have alcohol added during the finishing. If bottle is labeled Ginjo, it indicates that distilled alcohol was added. If it is labeled Junmai Ginjo, it means there was no alcohol added.
  • Daiginjo-shu: This sake style has had 50% of the grain milled away and no additional alcohol is added during finishing. If bottle is labeled Daiginjo, it indicates that distilled alcohol is added and if it is labeled Junmai Daiginjo, it means no alcohol was added.
  • Namazake: This is a special designation that means that the sake was not pasteurized before bottling. Sake is generally pasteurized to kill any bacteria or mold that may contaminate or ruin the final product in any way. It also serves to deactivate certain remaining enzymes that may change the characteristics of the sake (for better or worse) before it reaches the consumer.

How Rice Wine Is Made

Sake production is a complex undertaking. First the rice is milled, as mentioned above. It is then washed, soaked, and rinsed a second time to remove any particulate matter (called nuka) that remains clinging to the grains. The rice is then steamed to the proper consistency for the fermentation, as the rice will be fully cooked yet still slightly firm.

Half of the rice is placed into a large vat and the other half is reserved to create the starter, with a special fungus called koji sprinkled into it when it has cooled. Koji is used to convert the starches in the rice to sugar for fermentation.

Over the course of three to four days, the koji starter is mixed and carefully watched. When ready, a portion of the the koji starter is mixed with a portion of the remaining cooked rice, and water and yeast is added. Fermentation takes place over the next few weeks as more rice, water and koji starter are mixed in over three successive stages.

When the mash (as the fermenting mix is called) has reached the point of perfection (a judgment that is more art than science and generally decided by very experienced individuals) the resulting product is pressed to separate the liquid from the solids. Traditionally, this was done by hand using large canvass bags, however now it is mostly done by machines. The resulting liquid is then filtered and pasteurized.

The sake is generally aged six months, after which it is blended and often water is added to achieve the proper level of alcohol by volume. It is then bottled. Some sake is actually not filtered and contains some of the lees (sediment) and is called nigori-zake (cloudy sake) usually labeled as pearl in western countries.

Sake may sound like a simple product, rice, water and yeast, however the slightest change to the process can make a world of difference. The source of the rice and its growing environment are crucial to the consistency of the product. Variation in the koji production, or the temperature of the fermentation can also result in a drastically different profile.

Hot Sake vs. Cold Sake

Historically, this beverage was served warm, and the reasons were twofold. Firstly, this ancient drink was created before refrigeration and was therefore habitually served that way after methods to chill food and drink were developed. Secondly, sake was also historically a much more coarse beverage, and often would take up flavors from the wooden casks in which it was stored.

A side effect of the fermentation process in the past meant that strange flavors were produced at times if the process was not perfect. Masking those flavors by serving the sake at a higher temperature was fairly effective.

More recently, brewing techniques that are more precise, sanitary, and more consistent combined with more refined strains of yeast and koji and modern storage practices have created a very different product than what was produced historically. A more refined product does not mean that all brands or styles are the same, however. Just as western wines have subtle differences, so do sake products from different regions and different manufacturers.

Now, a high quality sake is meant to be consumed cold, while a cheaper one is typically served warm, which can hide off flavors that are created during the fermentation process of these cheaper brands. That being said, the peak flavor that manufacturers of high quality sake desire can be achieved at subtly different temperatures, which are not necessarily consistent for each brand.

To most people, this difference will not be noticeable (similar to the many different kinds of tea available, each of which has an “optimal” brewing temperature). But a general rule is that high quality sake should be served slightly chilled, but never too cold as many of the subtleties of the beverage may be muted when the drink is too cold.

There are a few quality sake products, however, that are meant to be served slightly warmed, and will be labeled as such. Some feel that it makes a nice treat on a cold winter day, but as a general rule, higher quality sake should be served slightly chilled.

The Art And Science of Sake Production

The process of making this delectable beverage is truly a craft that has evolved over many centuries, and continues to progress even today. Just as varietal wines from different regions and different grape types can display vastly different characteristics, so can sake from different regions and manufacturers. There are many variables, such as climate, weather, soil conditions, and many more than will affect the rice used.

It is well worth the effort of anyone who likes sake to explore the many different kinds that are available. The differences in the flavor and texture profiles, and the quality from different manufacturers, regions, and the rice used all influence the final product.

Pin It on Pinterest

Share This